Міжвідомчий Науково-методичний збірник
"Криміналістика і судова експертиза"
ISSN: 0130-2655
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O. Humenskyi

Summary

Any classification is one of the methods of knowledge. The classification of objects of expert research and the classification of forensic examinations play an important role in forensic activities.

Taking into account the hierarchy of values, the objects of study are proposed to be divided into general, generic, specific and immediate. Until recently, the classification of forensic examinations was carried out mainly on the basis of those sciences, the methods of which were used for the study of objects.

The integration and differentiation, occurring in modern science, affect the classification of forensic examinations.

The emergence of new expert tasks, intensive integration of achievements of other sciences into forensic expertise and differentiation of their industries, leads to the emergence and development of new types of an expertise.

A complex criterion that allows more or less clearly distinguish from each other different types of examinations, includes an idea of the subject, object and purpose of this type of examination, its methods and the nature of the underlying knowledge and takes into account the genesis of its development.

The most common in modern expertology is the division of examinations into classes, genera, species and subspecies, proposed by A. H. Shliakhov. In our opinion, it is easy to see that for his classification he applied the ranks of the hierarchical classification in biological systematics, which today is the most thoroughly developed.

During for 2015-2018, we have developed the concept of the so-called results of the engineering activities of a man (REAM) and principles for their expert research with the purpose of establishing group identity. In criminal proceedings REAM can be the subject of criminal encroachment and weapon of the crime.

In the result, we developed uniform principles and type scheme of the study REAM.

Applying a complex criterion of differentiation of examinations, we can conclude that we are dealing with a certain set of objects, the study of which belongs to different classes, genera (types) of examinations, but have common features. On the basis of the stated it is offered to include in classification of examinations the concept «examination family». By analogy with the common, generic, species and other objects of the group of examinations has its object (directly REAM), which we propose to name «family object». In our opinion, there are other family objects, for example, documents in the family of examinations of documents, which consists of different types of examinations.