N. Zubova, S. Naumenko, V. Somov
The article briefly describes the history of the emergence and development of paper money in Ukraine, special attention is paid to the period of independence of our state. In less than 30 years, the National Bank of Ukraine has issued four generations of banknotes. As of January 01, 2021, there were about 3 billion banknotes in circulation. Among the circulated banknotes, there are also those that differ slightly from the banknotes presented by the National Bank of Ukraine (NBU). Based on the Resolution of the Board of the National Bank of Ukraine dated 03.12.2018 No. 134 (as amended) “Rules for determining payment characteristics and exchange of banknotes, exchange and circulating coins of the national currency of Ukraine”, the concepts of “banknotes with manufacturer defects” and “banknote defects” are disclosed.
The article describes the technological process of making paper money. At the first stage, sheets of special paper are made in the banknote paper factory. Further, these sheets are sent to the NBU Banknote Factory, where all the images are applied on the sheets and cutting is carried out. The authors propose to systematize the types of defects in accordance with the stage of the technological process of manufacturing banknotes, at which these defects could arise. It is also proposed to distinguish four such stages: in the process of manufacturing banknote paper; at the stage of applying images on the front and back sides of sheets using forms of offset and gravure printing; when applying serial numbers; when cutting sheets into separate banknotes. The list of possible types of defects that may arise at one stage or another of the production process is given quite fully, some of them are illustrated for clarity, and variants of defects that are found in banknotes of different generations are analyzed.
Based on the study of the problem, the authors propose an algorithm for researching such banknotes, offer options for intermediate and final expert conclusions.
Key words: banknotes of Ukraine, banknotes in circulation, banknotes with manufacturer’s defects, National Bank of Ukraine, Banknote Factory, Banknote Paper Mill.