The article deals with a brief historical journey, devoted to the development of dactiloscopic science. On the basis of the provisions of the current Criminal Procedure Code of Ukraine (since 2012), it is defined the directions of the activity of using dactiloscopic trace information in the investigation of crimes at the present stage of development of criminalistics and forensic science, namely: 1) the collection of (detecting, fixing, collecting, storing and transporting) dactilocsopic information during the inspection of crime scene and other investigative (search) and secret investigative (search) actions (except for the examination); 2) the conduction of expert studies of hand traces and submitted samples in laboratory conditions at forensic institutions; 3) the functioning (formation, maintenance, use) of a system of dactyloscopic (fingerprint) registration.
The article emphasis the existing main problematic issues in this activity for certain three directions of the collection and use dactiloscopic information.
In the resultant part of the article, the ways of solving the raised problem issues are considered, in particular:
– actualization of the implemented and development of new methods for detecting hand traces;
– settlement of the preliminary investigation of the trace information at the crime scene, the use of the forensic registration system, actualization of the types of samples that are submitted for examination or are secretly obtained for a comparative study at the level of the Criminal Procedure Code of Ukraine;
– adoption of the Law of Ukraine «On Biometric Registration» with the definition of the categories of persons who are subject to obligatory fingerprinting registration, the introduction of voluntary fingerprinting registration, etc;
– accreditation of institutions providing technological criminalistics and forensic provision (at the level of standards, manuals, instructions, etc.) in accordance with the requirements of the international standards for the quality management systems of State Standards of Ukraine ISO/IES 17020:2014 «The general requirements for the activities of bodies of different types, which provide for the inspection» (according to which the institutions are accredited, performing the collection of information ) and of State Standards of Ukraine ISO/IEC 17025:2006 «The general requirements for the competence of test and calibration laboratories» (according to which the forensic institutions are accredited), other international standards harmonized in Ukraine, the best practical guidelines for the collection and expert examination of evidence, in particular on the definition of the order (algorithm) of the actions of forensic inspectors and the heads of investigative and operational groups when inspecting the crime scenes;
– actualization of the developed and the development of new algorithms for collecting trace information when conducting investigative actions;
– actualization of existing and the development of new techniques for conducting forensic examinations; – the use of the civil registration system for identification of unidentified corpses, persons who cannot provide data about themselves;
– proper resources provision, etc.
To solve problematic issues, it is proposed to develop a long-term phased Concept of the state policy in the field of reforming activities on technical and criminalistic support, expert and forensic support of justice in Ukraine.