Міжвідомчий Науково-методичний збірник
"Криміналістика і судова експертиза"
ISSN: 0130-2655
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V. Yusupov

Summary

The article reveals the main stages of the development of the forensic institutions of the Ministry of Justice and forensic subdivisions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in the second half of the 20th century as the main subjects of forensic activity in Ukraine.

It is noted that in 1960, after the adoption of the Criminal Code, the Code of Criminal Procedure and the Law “On the Judiciary of the Ukrainian SSR”, opportunities for using special knowledge were significantly expanded. It led to changes in the organization of activities of forensic institutions of the Ukrainian SSR.

The article reveals the main stages of the development of the forensic institutions of the Ministry of Justice and expert-criminalistics subdivisions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in the second half of the 20th century as the main subjects of forensic expert activity in Ukraine. It is noted that in 1960, after the adoption of the Criminal Code, the Code of Criminal Procedure and the Law “On the Judiciary of the Ukrainian SSR”, the opportunities for using special knowledge were significantly expanded. This led to changes in the organization of activities of criminalistics institutions of the Ukrainian SSR.

The types of forensic examinations conducted in forensic institutions at different times are considered. The emphasis was placed on the innovation of Ukrainian experts in the introduction of food products, orological research, laser methods for investigating physical evidence, and molecular genetic examination of DNA profiles in the practice of chemical research. The moments of creation of auto technical and phonoscopic laboratories, explosion engineering divisions were traced.

The main regulations in the field of forensic expert activity were analyzed after Ukraine proclaimed its independence in 1991. Following the adoption of the Law of Ukraine “On Forensic Expertise” (1994), the network of expert institutions of the Ministry of Justice, later the Forensic Service of the Ministry of Internal Affairs was established.

The personalities of Ukrainian experts who made a significant contribution to the development of forensic science and criminal science in the second half of the twentieth century were noted: L.E. Arotsker, N.N. Bokarius, G.L. Granovskyi, N.I. Klimenko, V.P. Kolmakov, V.K. Lisichenko, M.V. Saltevskyi, M.Y. Segay, Z.M. Sokolovskyi, I.Y. Fridman.

It is established that in the second half of the 20th century the chronological boundaries of the stages of development of Ukrainian criminalistics institutions were 1962–1963 and 1995– 1998, which is connected with the adoption of laws and other normative acts that regulated judicial and expert activities in Ukraine in a new way.