Е. Lukianchykov B. Lukianchykov S. Petriaiev
The article deals with the problematic issues of the forensics characteristics of crimes as a scientific category of forensic science and tools of cognitive activity in the disclosure and investigation of crimes. Attention is drawn to the fact that the modern stage of development of society is characterized not only by quantitative, but also by qualitative changes in the state of crime. New types of crimes are appearing and traditional methods of their commission and concealment are being improved using the achievements of scientific and technological progress. Significant parts of the crimes remain unsolved, and the persons who committed them are not punished. Law enforcement agencies are faced with the task of quickly disclosing them and protecting the violated rights of victims. Science, primarily forensic science, is called upon to provide assistance in solving such problems.
In the historical aspect, the development of the theory of forensic methodology, determining its place in the system of forensic science is considered. It is noted that it is advisable to consider the forensic methodology both as a branch of science, and as a system of knowledge about the technology of investigating crimes, and the technology itself, a kind of algorithm for investigating crimes, which is implemented in the practical activities of investigators, detectives, prosecutors.
Attention is drawn to the fact that since the mid-80s of the last century, the concept of criminalistics characteristics of crimes has entered the scientific circulation. Its correlation with the subject of proof and the opinions of scientists and practitioners about the place of forensic characteristics in the structure of private methods of investigation of certain types of crimes are analyzed. Based on the analysis, the author substantiates the conclusion that the forensic characterization of crimes should be considered as a structural element of a private investigation methodology and the basis for the development of such methods. Attention is drawn to the mandatory study of the correlation dependences between its elements, which can serve as a key to disclosing a specific crime.