L. Кotliarenko, А. Коfanov, O. Коfаnоvа, V. Zherebak
In forensic practice, biological traces of a person are very often used as material evidence – blood, hair, saliva, semen, urine, sweat, as well as parts of organs and tissues. Establishing the origin of these traces from a specific person is very important for the investigation of criminal offenses.
The current level of development of molecular genetic research indicates the need to use DNA analysis in the detection and investigation of criminal offenses against a person. Today, molecular genetic identification reveal reliable prospects for solving identification problems in the criminal proceedings and developing the evidence base, and also has a number of advantages over traditional serological methods for studying human biological traces.
It should be noted that along with the traditional method of nuclear DNA research, mitochondrial DNA research is also being carried out, which allows solving the problem of molecular genetic examination to establish biological affinity. The value of this method lies in its effectiveness in the study of a small amount of degraded DNA, secretions and heavily damaged objects, the study of which is impossible by traditional methods. When performing a forensic molecular genetic examination for the full identification of the detected traces when examining the places of committed criminal offenses, comparative samples are important, as well as the selection of appropriate biological samples to establish paternity and family ties.
Molecular genetic analysis of DNA is only one of the stages of identification, and in order to arrive at the final result, a statistical analysis of the data obtained is necessary, which is especially important when the genotypes of the criminal and the suspect in mixed tracks coincide. For a probable-statistical assessment of the results of the identification significance of the set of established genetic traits, the frequencies of the distribution of the studied alleles in the population are required.
Today, the DNA analysis method has become one of the most demanded directions in the development of forensic examinations, and its results are quite reliable evidence of the involvement of a specific person in a crime. Due to its unique capabilities, molecular genetic analysis of DNA is a powerful tool in the investigation of criminal proceedings.
Key words: nuclear DNA, mitochondrial DNA, molecular genetic examination, physical evidence, biological samples.