In this work we present a brief historical outline of development and improvement of diatom plankton test. The results of the study are presented for the period from 2013-2014 to 2017-2018 concerning the detection of diatom plankton in the biological fluids of corpses removed from water, compared with the diatom test of kidney extractions in the same cases.
The intake of fluid from the sinus of the sphenoid bone of the skull and pericardial fluid does not require significant material support, time and effort. The method can be easy performed even by the beginning pathologists of the Forensic Examination Department of the Medical Legal Bureau. The study lasts up to 3 days, which enables the forensic expert in a short time to determine the cause of death.
The perhydrol method currently used in Ukraine lasts from 5 to 7 days, requires a greater number of chemical reagents (including concentrated acids), which are on the list of precursors, has a negative impact on the health of the staff of the Forensic Toxicology Laboratory.
The proposed method of staining preparations of biological fluids, using a mixture of Romanovsky-Giemsa, increases the possibility of detecting diatom plankton and more accurately indicate its quantity in the preparations. In addition this method contributes to the specification of the features of diatom structure, which in turn resolves the issue of classification of detected diatoms.
The ability to determine which family and class the diatom plankton belongs to is very important in cases where it is necessary to clarify the location of the death (drowning). In these cases, in addition to examination of the body’s biological fluids, water samples are taken from the reservoir and a study is conducted for the presence of diatom plankton in it. Comparison of diatoms in the presented material will provide an opportunity to determine the place of death, which in some cases is very important for the investigation authorities.