According to the requirements of international law, the protective elements of documents confirming an identity or its special status and give the right to cross the state border must correspond to the maximum level of security. Modern expert practice testifies to the presence of a number of shortcomings in the protection of a passport of a citizen of Ukraine for traveling abroad with a contactless electronic carrier.
The main way to forge passport documents is to make unauthorized changes to the original data page. The main identifier, on the data page, is the bearer’s photographic image. Therefore, it is subject to unauthorized changes in the first place.
The main changes are made in the photographic image of the bearer and the duplicate image. The solution to the problem of their additional protection is possible by introducing additional special means. In particular, destructive holograms and Transparent Window technology (from Trüb, Gemalto Group (Sealys Window Lock)). Making any changes leaves noticeable traces that are easily identified by a simple visual method, without the use of special devices.
In addition, for supplemental protection, it is advisable to apply the document number by laser perforation to the bearer’s photographic image. When mechanically interfering with the photographic image, the license plate is damaged, which leaves noticeable traces, which are determined by a simple visual method (look at the clearance). Some of these solutions have already been implemented in today’s passport documents of Lithuania, the Netherlands and Finland.
Special attention should be paid to the contactless electronic data carrier based on RFID technology (RFID device). Its disadvantage is an external antenna (RFID antenna), which is performed by traditional technology – copper (copper substrate) engraving. Such an antenna is easily susceptible to mechanical damage if the document is handled carelessly. Because of this, it becomes difficult to verify the identity of the bearer. Offenders, specially disabling the antenna, use this disadvantage. Currently, the most economical way of making antennas for RFID devices is printing with conductive inks (printing method). The cost of conductive paints is lower than that of traditional technologies using metal substrates. In addition, conductive paints have a much higher resistance to mechanical damage than their counterparts from copper substrates.
The proposed innovative means of protection, which have already been tested in the identification documents of the states of the European Union. They are capable of preventing unauthorized changes required by offenders.
It is advisable to single out the following areas as a direction for further research: laser technologies; holography; printing and technical properties of polymeric materials.
Key words: passport of a citizen of Ukraine for travel abroad, forgery of documents, methods of protection, questioned document examination, border control.