A. Kirichenko; A. Tuntula; Yu. Tkach
The article proposes a new understanding of the classification of expert methods on the basis method, general scientific and criminalistic methods with allocation among the strictly criminalistic (basic, general, partial) and unoriginal criminalistic methods. Formulated concepts of each of the basic strictly criminalistic methods. Under the individual identification, it is suggested to understand the process of identifying the features of the external structure of a solid body or signs of appearance of a person with their materially fixed reflection on another solid body or in its structure or in the consciousness of a personal source. In group identification, it is possible to detect in a materially fixed representation of this kind of evidence only a certain group of trajectory objects. In contrast, the essence of the grouping is the process of establishing generic, species or group similarity of morphology or other substantial features of two or more solids body or two and more volumes of viscous, friable, liquid or gaseous substances. It is more appropriate to consider the diagnostic research as a process of establishing the presence of signs of a general nature of a certain external or internal influence on their materially fixed reflections on the surface or in the structure of a solid or in the structure of viscous, friable, liquid or gaseous substances or in the memory of a personal source, which makes it possible to diagnose the fact and other circumstances of this influence. The essence of the situational research is to establish the mechanism or situation of the interaction of two or more solids body or volumes of substances of a viscous, liquid, friable or gaseous aggregate state with a certain solid body on the materially fixed reflections of the features of this mechanism or situation on the surface or in the structure of solid body, or the ideal reflection of these same signs in the memory of a personal source. The definition of a classification study and the establishment of a common source of origin are also provided.
According to the results of the research, it was concluded that the innovations proposed do not pretend to be the ultimate solution to the relevant problems of the methodology of criminalistics and can serve as a basis for developing a commonly accepted solution to these problems as a result of a broad and correct scientific discussion.
Keywords: classification of criminalistic methods, individual and group identification, grouping; diagnostic and situational research.