A. Zherebko; Yu. Sinenko
The article deals with the personality of the criminal on the basis of the analysis of scientific approaches, materials of investigative and judicial practice, and norms of the current legislation of Ukraine as an element of the criminalistic characterization of crimes.
As a result of the study, it was concluded that the content of the criminalistics characteristics of crimes is a certain data system designed to organize the investigation of crimes using forensic methods, techniques and tools. In their essence, they are the basis for scientific recommendations intended for the preliminary investigation bodies for substantiated nomination of versions, determining the main directions of investigation and solving other problems. The identity of a criminal is a typical model of the person who committed the crime, with the biological, psychological and social properties inherent to him, the signs that participate in the determination of the mechanism of the crime and determine the specifics of its reflective capabilities and the process of trace formation. At the same time, they experience themselves and reflect the influence of other individuals, objects and processes interacting with them.
The system of signs of a criminalʼs personality includes demographic data, some moral qualities and psychological characteristics. The person of a criminal is a concept expressing the essence of the person who committed the crime. In this connection one can speak of typical signs of a person inclined to commit one or another type of crime (this primarily concerns professional and organized crime).
The study of the identity of criminals provides an opportunity to identify certain patterns in the behavior of the accused during the investigation and in court, which can be used by the investigator in choosing the tactics of procedural and investigative actions, as well as for sending an investigation into a specific criminal case. The study of the criminalʼs personality in modern criminalistics has reached the level at which it is possible to create methods for investigating certain types of crimes that are oriented toward the identity of a criminal. To implement what has been said, it is necessary to develop, in particular, an appropriate conceptual apparatus, based on what already exists in criminal science.