Міжвідомчий Науково-методичний збірник
"Криміналістика і судова експертиза"
ISSN: 2786-7072 (Online); ISSN: 2786-7080 (Print)
PDF vypusk_68-292-301 Завантажень: 20, розмiр: 340.7 KB

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33994/kndise.2023.68.29

O. Sanzhara

The elements of probation that were in Roman criminal law in 450 BC are analyzed. from the moment of the conclusion of the legal act «Laws of the XII Tables», «Justice of the Rus», in which the norms of Rus customary law, the Lithuanian statutes of the period of the XV-XVI centuries, as well as the norms of criminal law set forth in the book of the first volume XV of the «Code of Laws» were codified Russian Empire.
The first cases of probation in the USA and Great Britain are being studied, in particular, the first manifestations of probation applied by D. Augustus in the USA, as well as the Law «On Probation for Minors» was adopted in 1901 within the US state, the Federal Law «On Probation» was adopted in the USA in 1925 the Probation of Offenders Act was introduced into the law of England and Wales in 1907. Further steps in the development of probation and its transformation into a fullfledged punishment (its replacement) are consistently analyzed, which can be used in certain cases as an alternative to imprisonment.
An opinion is given on the need to divide the history of the development of probation into stages that led to the emergence of the institution and the term probation in the countries of the Anglo-Saxon system of law, as well as the subsequent stages in the formation of the modern model of probation in the world.
In the article, the author proposes its own periodization of the stages of development of this institution, in which the first three stages refer to the period of development of the elements of criminal influence characteristic of the application of probation, and the next three characterize the process of the emergence of the concept and the consistent development of the institution of probation. Such stages are proposed to be considered in the following sequence:

  1. Starting from prehistoric times and ending with the period of antiquity.
  2. The period of the Middle Ages, beginning with the publication of «Justice of the Rus» and ending with the period of application of the Lithuanian charters, which lasted until the first half of the 17th century.
  3. The times when Ukraine belonged to Russia as an autonomy (the second half of the 17th – the 18th century).
  4. Emergence and implementation in the USA and Great Britain at the end of the 17th century. early 19th century concept of probation.
  5. The middle of the XIX-XX, characterized by the development of the institution of probation, the formation of an opinion on the possibility of its application instead of the main type of punishment.
  6. Modern period of independence and development of criminal law, in particular the institution of probation.

Key words: probation, punishment, means of criminal legal influence, criminal legal measures, resocialization, probation, fine.