Міжвідомчий Науково-методичний збірник
"Криміналістика і судова експертиза"
ISSN: 0130-2655
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Yu. Irkhin

Summary

The article deals with the main results of scientific research in the field of forensic psychological examinations related to the expert definition of the psychological components of fraudulent actions in cases of invalidation of agreements.

According to the results of the conducted studies, the author outlines a range of methodological and practical problems related to expert identification of psychologically significant markers of fraudulent actions in the context of psychological research of the identity of victims of fraud.

As the object of such acts are persons who are in special and specific true life circumstances. As the agent of fraudulent acts the author sees an active psychological influence on the personality of the object with the use of various psychological technologies.

As the main markers of fraudulent actions against persons in special and specific true life circumstances, the author describes a deliberate introduction to deception, the conscious establishment of trust and the abuse of trust.

It is defined the stages and main stages of establishing trust relationships and critical phases are identified in which confidence as a phenomenon of interpersonal communication turns into a conscious fraudulent activity using the methods of psychological influence.

The author pays special attention to the disclosure of the principle of dyadness in the course of expert psychological studies in establishing and developing confidential relations as an important psychologically significant diagnostic factor that very likely can be indicative of the presence of fraud markers.

As a separate segment of the general structure of forensic psychological research, the author emphasizes the leading role of psychological technologies in the formation of interpersonal trust relations in the adoption of agreements between individuals. In particular, the natural individual psychological features of the personality of the object of psychological influence and the specificity of the current situation play a leading role in which the mutual acceptance of agreements takes place. It is in the context of natural and individual psychological features of man as a social being, the author presents the main channels of psychological influence on the personality that are inherent in all people without exception. To these, in particular, according to the author, relates: psychological tension, psychological stress, and psychological trauma.

Taking into account the deliberate (absolutely conscious) connotation of fraud as a criminal act, the presence of these markers in conjunction with the fact of establishing trust relationships with a maximum degree of probability may indicate the presence of signs of fraud in the acts of persons who are the initiators of interpersonal communicative contact.

The results of scientific research in the field of forensic psychological examinations, related to the expert definition of the psychological components of fraudulent actions in cases on the recognition of agreements as invalid, will be used as a basis for the corresponding method of forensic examinations.