The article deals with the current situation in the study by forensic experts of holographic protective elements (hereinafter – HPE). Over the past 30 years, HPE have been actively developing and widespread, they are used both as design elements and to protect various types of documents. In its manufacture, application software and equipment are used, which provides high-resolution images and allow encoding large amounts of information. Although there are several scientific works included in the Register of methodologies for conducting forensic examinations of the Ministry of Justice of Ukraine, but it was written more than 20 years ago. Therefore, to conduct an expert study of HPE, it is necessary to update the methodological base, revise the approaches to its research and issues to be solved.
The article briefly outlines the design features, techniques and methods of protecting HPE that are used by its manufacturers. It is emphasized that latent images are introduced into the structure of holograms to control its authenticity, which are checked by various detectors. There are described examples of latent image decoding. It is also described an example of detecting a fake film with holographic elements that are very similar to the original. At the same time, when examining the fake film, it was found that there are no microtext and the hidden abbreviation “MBС” (in Ukrainian).
As a result of the research carried out, the author proposes to accept the results of verification of the elements of control of the authenticity of the HPE, in order to substantiate the probable conclusion about the conformity or inconsistency of the hologram. In addition, the presence of significant differences in the common features of the studied HPE and the sample, in the author’s opinion, is a sufficient basis for the conclusion about the discrepancy between the holographic images and the sample. Therefore, experts of the questioned document examination can carry out such studies, with certain restrictions.
Key words: holographic security elements, studies of holograms, documents on a plastic basis, counterfeiting of holographic security elements.