The theoretical and practical aspects of ricochet modeling are considered in the expert experiment in conditions of limited space (in laboratory conditions). The methodological foundations and the prerequisites for the creation and improvement of appropriate forensic techniques are considered. The statistical results of the expert experiments carried out with different obstacle surfaces, most frequently encountered during inspections of the scene of the occurrence of the use (use) of firearms or constructively similar items are given. The possibilities and advantages of using the following complex of technical means are briefly formulated.
The history of the study of gunshot injuries dates back several centuries. By the beginning of the 21st century, significant results have been achieved in studying forensic ballistics: morphological signs of the entrance and exit gunshot wounds have been established depending on the type of weapons, ammunition, the range of the shot, the features of gunshot injuries of bone tissue, the features of gunshot injuries formed during shots through the barrier, formulated the principles of ballistic experiments and much more. At the same time, very little attention has been paid to the issue of damage generation in the ricochet of a firearm. An analysis of the literature available to us shows that today there are no differential diagnostic signs of gunshot lesions formed after bullet ricochet in forensic science and practice, which does not allow to objectively state the existence of a bounce in each specific case, to establish the angle and distance of the shot, and also, the nature of the obstacle from which the ricochet occurred. The absence of a set of criteria for this variety of gunshot injuries can lead to diagnostic errors during forensic expert studies.
The results of our studies allowed us to formulate preliminary interim conclusions:
1. The study of firearms resulting from the ricochets of the bullet is relevant and practically significant, as evidenced by the fundamental differences in the legal assessment of the actions of the person who shot at the setting of signs of ricocheting, in contrast to the situation in which such signs were not detected, as well as lack of elaboration of differential diagnostic criteria for this type of firearms.
2. Designed (improved) and tested original installation, which allows to create a model of the rifle of a firearm in the conditions of a laboratory experiment, as well as change the parameters of obstacles (barriers) in the process of conducting research.
3. Proven experimentally, the possibility of using (application) of polymeric composites, etc. materials made using a 3D printer to simulate surfaces from crime scenes (using firearms) in the absence of the use of “real” surface samples.
4. The formulated methodical recommendations for carrying out experiments with the purpose of obtaining firearms from the action of the reciprocating ball in different circumstances have been approved.