Міжвідомчий Науково-методичний збірник
"Криміналістика і судова експертиза"
ISSN: 2786-7072 (Online); ISSN: 2786-7080 (Print)
PDF vypusk_68-365-381 Завантажень: 58, розмiр: 3.0 MB

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33994/kndise.2023.68.37

N. Zubova, S. Naumenko, V. Somov, V. Fesiunin

The article is devoted to the consideration of methods for imitation of relief elements and perforation in the manufacture of counterfeit banknotes.
In the manufacture of banknotes in modern conditions, the latest scientific and technical achievements are used. The reliability of protection of banknotes from forgery is ensured by the simultaneous use of a complex of security features of different levels. With the development of technological progress, new protective elements appear, and the reproduction of those already introduced into production gradually becomes available for reproduction by counterfeiters.
In an effort to bring the appearance of counterfeit banknotes closer to those issued by issuing institutions, criminals use various techniques to imitate security elements and materials. Most often, they try to imitate the so-called public elements, known to most citizens and perceived by sight or by touch.
A variety of relief elements are an indispensable attribute of the design of any banknote. Relief elements are among the important public security elements of banknotes issued for cash circulation. They are informative and easily perceived visually and tactilely. In addition to the protective function, they provide convenience for people with visual impairments to recognize the denomination of a banknote. At the same time, even a primitive forgery of the relief element of a banknote can mislead an ordinary citizen, because it imitates the presence of a corresponding sign or image.
The article describes the technology of applying embossed signs, the concepts of «painted» and «unpainted» embossed signs, and elements with KIPP-effect or PEAK-effect, as well as these concepts are illustrated with examples using banknotes that are issued by issuing institutions.
The methods of imitation of relief signs on counterfeit banknotes are highlighted and illustrated by cases from expert practice, namely: by making special relief forms and applying colourless embossing in the areas of the elements corresponding to the elements applied by intaglio printing on banknotes; imitation of relief elements on counterfeit banknotes, implemented by applying to the areas where relief elements should be located on a real banknote, convex strokes of arbitrary shape, or strokes formed by individual dots, which may not match the coloured image in content; creating relief by applying a layer of a transparent substance to the location of the corresponding inscription or image, made by inkjet or another non-relief printing method; by «powdering» a non-gravure print of a wet ink image with polymer powder on the face of the note to create a relief effect.
The article gives a brief definition of micro-perforation, describes the technology of applying micro-perforation on banknotes, and provides illustrations of banknotes with elements applied by micro-perforation. Using examples from expert practice, methods for simulating perforation on counterfeit banknotes are considered, illustrating the features of the corresponding imitation method.

Key words: banknote, banknote relief element imitation, banknote perforation, counterfeit banknote, banknote relief element.