N. Zubova, S. Naumenko, V. Somov
The article deals with the consideration of ways to imitate watermarks in the manufacture of counterfeit banknotes. The watermark is an important public security element for banknotes issued for cash circulation. The basis of any banknote related to paper money is banknote paper. The article briefly describes the stages of the technological process of manufacturing banknote paper and methods for forming watermarks on it. The criteria for the classification of watermarks depending on their location on the banknote (general, local stripe), in relation to the overall tone of the paper (one-tone, two-tone, local, filigree, combined), composition, as well as drawings illustrating these types of watermarks are given. signs. The watermarks developed using modern technologies in recent decades are described, as well as their illustrations. The levels of counterfeiting are determined depending on the subject and its technical capabilities for the manufacture of counterfeit banknotes. The ways of imitation of watermarks are generalized. Firstly, watermarked paper intended for other purposes can be used to make counterfeit banknotes. Secondly, the imitation of watermarks is possible using specially made forms: embossed, used for embossing paper, and printed-screen or letterpress. Widely used to imitate watermarks of copiers. Less common are watermarks, which are imitated using fat-containing substances, or painted with a dye. The article provides examples of the implementation of the relevant methods with their illustration based on studies of counterfeit banknotes.
Key words: banknote, banknote paper, watermark, types of watermarks, watermark imitation.